This literature review provides an account of research on the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (MYP). It summarizes themes and trends of both theoretical and empirical evidence gathered from a comprehensive search of educational literature published in English since 2005. Some of the themes covered include: holistic approaches to education and characteristics of the MYP in teaching and learning; approaches, strategies and interventions of programme implementation; a distributed perspective on leadership and management; teacher attributes, pedagogy and professional development; collaboration and teamwork; curriculum coherence and consistency; the transition across programmes; and student engagement. The review brings together significant debates, key messages, findings, implications and suggestions on relevant research topics and related issues. Consequently, it considers the gaps, connections and possible implications for further developments and research on the MYP.